emt-monster:

Two hearts

A 64-year-old had a heart transplant due to heart failure. Because of the presence of severely high blood pressure in the lung circulation (pulmonary hypertension), the recipient’s native heart (N) was left in place and the donor heart was implanted in the right chest. The native heart maintains right circulation in spite of chronic pulmonary hypertension, while the donor heart (D) functions as a biologic left ventricle.

The post-transplantation electrocardiogram shows two QRS complexes (Panel A). The donor heart can be seen clearly in the right chest on both the x-ray (Panel B) and the CT-scan (Panel C) of the chest.

An automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator and cardiac medications are used to treat the recipient’s native heart, as are immunosuppressive medications for the donor heart.

(NEJM)

(via medical-student)

emt-monster:

Something in the eye?

A 15-year-old boy was assaulted with a pencil. A small laceration was noted on the left eyebrow (Panel A).Examination revealed severely impaired vision and just a little bleeding in the sclera (the white of the eye)

A CT-scan however, revealed a large fragment of the pencil lodged inside the boy’s skull. It had damaged the blood supply to the left eye, but not the brain structures. 

The pencil was removed, restoring the bloodflow. Alas, the patients vision did not improve. 

Source

(via medical-student)

neurosciencestuff:

Poor cardiovascular health linked to memory, learning deficits
The risk of developing cognitive impairment, especially learning and memory problems, is significantly greater for people with poor cardiovascular health than people with intermediate or ideal cardiovascular health, according to a study in the Journal of the American Heart Association.
Cardiovascular health plays a critical role in brain health, with several cardiovascular risk factors also playing a role in higher risk for cognitive decline.
Researchers found that people with the lowest cardiovascular health scores were more likely have impairment on learning, memory and verbal fluency tests than their counterparts with intermediate or better risk profiles.
The study involved 17,761 people aged 45 and older at the outset who had normal cognitive function and no history of stroke. Mental function was evaluated four years later.
Researchers used data from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study to determine cardiovascular health status based on The American Heart Association Life’s Simple 7™ score. The REGARDS study population is 55 percent women, 42 percent blacks, 58 percent whites and 56 percent are residents of the “stroke belt” states of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee.
The Life’s Simple 7™ initiative is a new system to measure the benefits of modifiable health behaviors and risk factors in cardiovascular health, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. It classifies each of the seven factors of heart health as either poor, intermediate or ideal.
After accounting for differences in age, sex, race and education, researchers identified cognitive impairment in:
4.6 percent of people with the worst cardiovascular health scores;
2.7 percent of those with intermediate health profiles; and
2.6 percent of those in the best cardiovascular health category.
“Even when ideal cardiovascular health is not achieved intermediate levels of cardiovascular health are preferable to low levels for better cognitive function,” said lead investigator Evan L. Thacker, Ph.D., an assistant professor and chronic disease epidemiologist at Brigham Young University Department of Health Science, in Provo, Utah.
“This is an encouraging message because intermediate cardiovascular health is a more realistic target for many individuals than ideal cardiovascular health.”
The differences were seen regardless of race, gender, pre-existing cardiovascular conditions, or geographic region, although higher cardiovascular health scores were more common in men, people with higher education, higher income, and among people without any cardiovascular disease.
Cognitive function assessments involved tests to measure verbal learning, memory and fluency. Verbal learning was determined using a three-trial, ten-item word list, while verbal memory was assessed by free recall of the ten-item list after a brief delay filled with non-cognitive questions. Verbal fluency was determined by asking each participant to name as many animals as possible in 60 seconds.
Although mechanisms that might explain the findings remain unclear, Thacker said that undetected subclinical strokes could not be ruled out.

neurosciencestuff:

Poor cardiovascular health linked to memory, learning deficits

The risk of developing cognitive impairment, especially learning and memory problems, is significantly greater for people with poor cardiovascular health than people with intermediate or ideal cardiovascular health, according to a study in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

Cardiovascular health plays a critical role in brain health, with several cardiovascular risk factors also playing a role in higher risk for cognitive decline.

Researchers found that people with the lowest cardiovascular health scores were more likely have impairment on learning, memory and verbal fluency tests than their counterparts with intermediate or better risk profiles.

The study involved 17,761 people aged 45 and older at the outset who had normal cognitive function and no history of stroke. Mental function was evaluated four years later.

Researchers used data from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study to determine cardiovascular health status based on The American Heart Association Life’s Simple 7™ score. The REGARDS study population is 55 percent women, 42 percent blacks, 58 percent whites and 56 percent are residents of the “stroke belt” states of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee.

The Life’s Simple 7™ initiative is a new system to measure the benefits of modifiable health behaviors and risk factors in cardiovascular health, such as smoking, diet, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. It classifies each of the seven factors of heart health as either poor, intermediate or ideal.

After accounting for differences in age, sex, race and education, researchers identified cognitive impairment in:

  • 4.6 percent of people with the worst cardiovascular health scores;
  • 2.7 percent of those with intermediate health profiles; and
  • 2.6 percent of those in the best cardiovascular health category.

“Even when ideal cardiovascular health is not achieved intermediate levels of cardiovascular health are preferable to low levels for better cognitive function,” said lead investigator Evan L. Thacker, Ph.D., an assistant professor and chronic disease epidemiologist at Brigham Young University Department of Health Science, in Provo, Utah.

“This is an encouraging message because intermediate cardiovascular health is a more realistic target for many individuals than ideal cardiovascular health.”

The differences were seen regardless of race, gender, pre-existing cardiovascular conditions, or geographic region, although higher cardiovascular health scores were more common in men, people with higher education, higher income, and among people without any cardiovascular disease.

Cognitive function assessments involved tests to measure verbal learning, memory and fluency. Verbal learning was determined using a three-trial, ten-item word list, while verbal memory was assessed by free recall of the ten-item list after a brief delay filled with non-cognitive questions. Verbal fluency was determined by asking each participant to name as many animals as possible in 60 seconds.

Although mechanisms that might explain the findings remain unclear, Thacker said that undetected subclinical strokes could not be ruled out.

medicalschool:

Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid covered by arachnoidal cells and collagen that may develop between the surface of the brain and the cranial base or on the arachnoid membrane, one of the three membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord. Arachnoid cysts are a congenital disorder, and most cases begin during infancy; however, onset may be delayed until adolescence. 
Image: An MRI of a 25 year old woman with left frontotemporal arachnoid cyst.

medicalschool:

Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid covered by arachnoidal cells and collagen that may develop between the surface of the brain and the cranial base or on the arachnoid membrane, one of the three membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord. Arachnoid cysts are a congenital disorder, and most cases begin during infancy; however, onset may be delayed until adolescence.

Image: An MRI of a 25 year old woman with left frontotemporal arachnoid cyst.

rachelanthropus:

Left, normal neonate heart with aorta (dark green arrow) and pulmonary artery (white). Right, transposition of the great arteries with aorta (light green) placed in front of the pulmonary artery.
Transposition of the great arteries (TGA): the abnormal position of the major arteries of the heart.
Two main arteries leave the heart: the aorta carries oxygenated blood to the whole body, and the pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs. During normal development, these arteries are formed when a single structure (the truncus arteriosus) splits in two, and the arteries spiral around each other. In an extreme case of TGA, the arteries don’t spiral around each other and thus their blood flow is completely reversed - deoxygenated blood is carried to the body, and oxygenated blood is carried back to the lungs. This is a cyanotic defect where the infant’s skin turns blue from lack of oxygen. Depending on the extent of the defect, corrective surgery will be needed during the first few months of life.
Congenital heart defects affect 1% of live births. Of this 1%, approximately 10% involve TGA.
source

rachelanthropus:

Left, normal neonate heart with aorta (dark green arrow) and pulmonary artery (white). Right, transposition of the great arteries with aorta (light green) placed in front of the pulmonary artery.

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA): the abnormal position of the major arteries of the heart.

Two main arteries leave the heart: the aorta carries oxygenated blood to the whole body, and the pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs. During normal development, these arteries are formed when a single structure (the truncus arteriosus) splits in two, and the arteries spiral around each other. 

In an extreme case of TGA, the arteries don’t spiral around each other and thus their blood flow is completely reversed - deoxygenated blood is carried to the body, and oxygenated blood is carried back to the lungs. This is a cyanotic defect where the infant’s skin turns blue from lack of oxygen. Depending on the extent of the defect, corrective surgery will be needed during the first few months of life.

Congenital heart defects affect 1% of live births. Of this 1%, approximately 10% involve TGA.

source

(via medicineisnotmerchandise)

capsuleofme:

I love those unexpected moments of humour in Talley

capsuleofme:

I love those unexpected moments of humour in Talley

medicineisnotmerchandise:

scienceisbeauty:

Exciting news: deaf people get gene tweak to restore natural hearing (via NewScientist)

Awesome!

medicineisnotmerchandise:

scienceisbeauty:

Exciting news: deaf people get gene tweak to restore natural hearing (via NewScientist)

Awesome!

(via dieselotherapy)

thejunglenook:

somersault1824:

Be grateful to your mother for your beautiful mitochondria :)
via Neurons want food http://ift.tt/1hsuwaB

My Madre taught me to be the powerhouse of the home

thejunglenook:

somersault1824:

Be grateful to your mother for your beautiful mitochondria :)

via Neurons want food http://ift.tt/1hsuwaB

My Madre taught me to be the powerhouse of the home

(via medical-student)

emt-monster:

The beautiful brain. Sagittal, coronal and horisontal view.

(via dieselotherapy)