radiologysigns:

5 week old girl. What bony abnormality is seen? 

ANSWER: http://goo.gl/sqHB5K

radiologysigns:

5 week old girl. What bony abnormality is seen?

ANSWER: http://goo.gl/sqHB5K

allheartcare:

Note the marked difference in X-ray transparency (density) between the left and right thoracic cavities.
The complete radio-translucency (manifest as greater film density or darker lung field on the image) of the thorax with absence of vascular markings is characteristic of a pneumothorax.

allheartcare:

Note the marked difference in X-ray transparency (density) between the left and right thoracic cavities.

The complete radio-translucency (manifest as greater film density or darker lung field on the image) of the thorax with absence of vascular markings is characteristic of a pneumothorax.

(via medical-student)

medicalschool:

Gross pathology of rheumatic heart disease: aortic stenosis. Aorta has been removed to show thickened, fused aortic valve leaflets and opened coronary arteries from above.

medicalschool:

Gross pathology of rheumatic heart disease: aortic stenosis. Aorta has been removed to show thickened, fused aortic valve leaflets and opened coronary arteries from above.

(via medical-student)

medicalschool:

Syringomyelia is a generic term referring to a disorder in which a cyst or cavity forms within the spinal cord. This cyst, called a syrinx, can expand and elongate over time, destroying the spinal cord. The damage may result in pain, paralysis, weakness, and stiffness in the back, shoulders, and extremities. Syringomyelia may also cause a loss of the ability to feel extremes of hot or cold, especially in the hands. The disorder generally leads to a cape-like loss of pain and temperature sensation along the back and arms. Each patient experiences a different combination of symptoms. These symptoms typically vary depending on the extent and, often more critically, to the location of the syrinx within the spinal cord.
Image: An idiopathic syrinx. See the thin light grey shape inside the spinal cord, placed at centre in the bottom half of the above image.

medicalschool:

Syringomyelia is a generic term referring to a disorder in which a cyst or cavity forms within the spinal cord. This cyst, called a syrinx, can expand and elongate over time, destroying the spinal cord. The damage may result in pain, paralysis, weakness, and stiffness in the back, shoulders, and extremities. Syringomyelia may also cause a loss of the ability to feel extremes of hot or cold, especially in the hands. The disorder generally leads to a cape-like loss of pain and temperature sensation along the back and arms. Each patient experiences a different combination of symptoms. These symptoms typically vary depending on the extent and, often more critically, to the location of the syrinx within the spinal cord.

Image: An idiopathic syrinx. See the thin light grey shape inside the spinal cord, placed at centre in the bottom half of the above image.

mynotes4usmle:

ANTIBIOTICS CHEAT SHEET :)
Also, REMEMBER!!!!
* Sulfonamides compete for albumin with:
Bilirrubin: given in 2°,3°T, high risk or indirect hyperBb and kernicterus in premies
Warfarin: increases toxicity: bleeding
* Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Suceptible:
Natural Penicillins (G, V, F, K)
Aminopenicillins (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin)
Antipseudomonal Penicillins (Ticarcillin, Piperacillin)
* Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Resistant:
Oxacillin, Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin
3°G, 4°G Cephalosporins
Carbapenems 
Monobactams
Beta-lactamase inhibitors
* Penicillins enhanced with:
Clavulanic acid & Sulbactam (both are suicide inhibitors, they inhibit beta-lactamase)
Aminoglycosides (against enterococcus and psedomonas)
* Aminoglycosides enhanced with Aztreonam
* Penicillins: renal clearance EXCEPT Oxacillin & Nafcillin (bile)
* Cephalosporines: renal clearance EXCEPT Cefoperazone & Cefrtriaxone (bile)
* Both inhibited by Probenecid during tubular secretion.
* 2°G Cephalosporines: none cross BBB except Cefuroxime
* 3°G Cephalosporines: all cross BBB except Cefoperazone bc is highly highly lipid soluble, so is protein bound in plasma, therefore it doesn’t cross BBB.
* Cephalosporines are ”LAME" bc they  do not cover this organisms 
L  isteria monocytogenes
A  typicals (Mycoplasma, Chlamydia)
M RSA (except Ceftaroline, 5°G)
E  nterococci

* Disulfiram-like effect: Cefotetan & Cefoperazone (mnemonic)
* Cefoperanzone: all the exceptions!!!
All 3°G cephalosporins cross the BBB except Cefoperazone.
All cephalosporins are renal cleared, except Cefoperazone.
Disulfiram-like effect
* Against Pseudomonas:
3°G Cef taz idime (taz taz taz taz)
4°G Cefepime, Cefpirome (not available in the USA)
Antipseudomonal penicillins
Aminoglycosides (synergy with beta-lactams)
* Covers MRSA: Ceftaroline (rhymes w/ Caroline, Caroline the 5°G Ceph), Vancomycin, Daptomycin, Linezolid, Tigecycline.
* Covers VRSA: Linezolid, Danupristin/Quinupristin
* Aminoglycosides: decrease release of ACh in synapse and act as a Neuromuscular blocker, this is why it enhances effects of muscle relaxants.
* DEMECLOCYCLINE: tetracycline that’s not used as an AB, it is used as tx of SIADH to cause Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (inhibits the V2 receptor in collecting ducts)
* Phototoxicity: Q ue S T  ion?
Q uinolones
Sulfonamides
T etracyclines

* p450 inhibitors: Cloramphenicol, Macrolides (except Azithromycin), Sulfonamides
* Macrolides SE: Motilin stimulation, QT prolongation, reversible deafness, eosinophilia, cholestatic hepatitis
* Bactericidal: beta-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems), aminoglycosides, fluorquinolones, metronidazole.
* Baceriostatic: tetracyclins, streptogramins, chloramphenicol, lincosamides, oxazolidonones, macrolides, sulfonamides, DHFR inhibitors.
* Pseudomembranous colitis: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Lincomycin.
* QT prolongation: macrolides, sometimes fluoroquinolones

mynotes4usmle:

ANTIBIOTICS CHEAT SHEET :)

Also, REMEMBER!!!!

* Sulfonamides compete for albumin with:

  • Bilirrubin: given in 2°,3°T, high risk or indirect hyperBb and kernicterus in premies
  • Warfarin: increases toxicity: bleeding

Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Suceptible:

  • Natural Penicillins (G, V, F, K)
  • Aminopenicillins (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin)
  • Antipseudomonal Penicillins (Ticarcillin, Piperacillin)

Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Resistant:

  • Oxacillin, Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin
  • 3°G, 4°G Cephalosporins
  • Carbapenems 
  • Monobactams
  • Beta-lactamase inhibitors

* Penicillins enhanced with:

  • Clavulanic acid & Sulbactam (both are suicide inhibitors, they inhibit beta-lactamase)
  • Aminoglycosides (against enterococcus and psedomonas)

Aminoglycosides enhanced with Aztreonam

* Penicillins: renal clearance EXCEPT Oxacillin & Nafcillin (bile)

* Cephalosporines: renal clearance EXCEPT Cefoperazone & Cefrtriaxone (bile)

* Both inhibited by Probenecid during tubular secretion.

* 2°G Cephalosporines: none cross BBB except Cefuroxime

* 3°G Cephalosporines: all cross BBB except Cefoperazone bc is highly highly lipid soluble, so is protein bound in plasma, therefore it doesn’t cross BBB.

* Cephalosporines are ”LAME" bc they  do not cover this organisms 

  • L  isteria monocytogenes
  • A  typicals (Mycoplasma, Chlamydia)
  • RSA (except Ceftaroline, 5°G)
  •  nterococci

image

* Disulfiram-like effect: Cefotetan Cefoperazone (mnemonic)

* Cefoperanzone: all the exceptions!!!

  • All 3°G cephalosporins cross the BBB except Cefoperazone.
  • All cephalosporins are renal cleared, except Cefoperazone.
  • Disulfiram-like effect

* Against Pseudomonas:

  • 3°G Cef taz idime (taz taz taz taz)
  • 4°G Cefepime, Cefpirome (not available in the USA)
  • Antipseudomonal penicillins
  • Aminoglycosides (synergy with beta-lactams)

* Covers MRSA: Ceftaroline (rhymes w/ Caroline, Caroline the 5°G Ceph), Vancomycin, Daptomycin, Linezolid, Tigecycline.

Covers VRSA: Linezolid, Danupristin/Quinupristin

* Aminoglycosides: decrease release of ACh in synapse and act as a Neuromuscular blocker, this is why it enhances effects of muscle relaxants.

* DEMECLOCYCLINE: tetracycline that’s not used as an AB, it is used as tx of SIADH to cause Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (inhibits the V2 receptor in collecting ducts)

* Phototoxicity: Q ue S T  ion?

  • uinolones
  • Sulfonamides
  • T etracyclines

image

* p450 inhibitors: Cloramphenicol, Macrolides (except Azithromycin), Sulfonamides

* Macrolides SE: Motilin stimulation, QT prolongation, reversible deafness, eosinophilia, cholestatic hepatitis

Bactericidal: beta-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems), aminoglycosides, fluorquinolones, metronidazole.

* Baceriostatic: tetracyclins, streptogramins, chloramphenicol, lincosamides, oxazolidonones, macrolides, sulfonamides, DHFR inhibitors.

Pseudomembranous colitis: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Lincomycin.

QT prolongation: macrolides, sometimes fluoroquinolones

(via medical-student)

"What’s wrong with death sir? What are we so mortally afraid of? Why can’t we treat death with a certain amount of humanity and dignity, and decency, and God forbid, maybe even humor.
Death is not the enemy gentlemen. If we’re going to fight a disease, let’s fight one of the most terrible diseases of all, indifference.”
                                          
Patch Adams (1998)

(via acrylicalchemy)

medicine-nerd:

secretlifeofateenblogger:

I keep forgetting what the differences are in the over the counter pain relievers, so I made a handy chart.

FYI Acetaminophren=Paracetamol

medicine-nerd:

secretlifeofateenblogger:

I keep forgetting what the differences are in the over the counter pain relievers, so I made a handy chart.

FYI Acetaminophren=Paracetamol

(via medical-student)

medicalschool:

Computer tomography of human brain, from base of the skull to top. Taken with intravenous contrast medium.

medicalschool:

Computer tomography of human brain, from base of the skull to top. Taken with intravenous contrast medium.